.. _tutorial: Tutorial ======== Converting Quantities --------------------- Pint has the concept of Unit Registry, an object within which units are defined and handled. You start by creating your registry:: >>> from pint import UnitRegistry >>> ureg = UnitRegistry() .. testsetup:: * from pint import UnitRegistry ureg = UnitRegistry() Q_ = ureg.Quantity If no parameter is given to the constructor, the unit registry is populated with the default list of units and prefixes. You can now simply use the registry in the following way: .. doctest:: >>> distance = 24.0 * ureg.meter >>> print(distance) 24.0 meter >>> time = 8.0 * ureg.second >>> print(time) 8.0 second >>> print(repr(time)) In this code distance and time are physical quantity objects (Quantity). Physical quantities can be queried for their magnitude, units, and dimensionality: .. doctest:: >>> print(distance.magnitude) 24.0 >>> print(distance.units) meter >>> print(distance.dimensionality) [length] and can handle mathematical operations between: .. doctest:: >>> speed = distance / time >>> print(speed) 3.0 meter / second As unit registry knows about the relationship between different units, you can convert quantities to the unit of choice: .. doctest:: >>> speed.to(ureg.inch / ureg.minute ) This method returns a new object leaving the original intact as can be seen by: .. doctest:: >>> print(speed) 3.0 meter / second If you want to convert in-place (i.e. without creating another object), you can use the ito method: .. doctest:: >>> speed.ito(ureg.inch / ureg.minute ) >>> speed >>> print(speed) 7086.614173228345 inch / minute If you ask Pint to perform an invalid conversion: .. doctest:: >>> speed.to(ureg.joule) Traceback (most recent call last): ... pint.errors.DimensionalityError: Cannot convert from 'inch / minute' ([length] / [time]) to 'joule' ([length] ** 2 * [mass] / [time] ** 2) There are also methods 'to_base_units' and 'ito_base_units' which automatically convert to the reference units with the correct dimensionality: .. doctest:: >>> height = 5.0 * ureg.foot + 9.0 * ureg.inch >>> print(height) 5.75 foot >>> print(height.to_base_units()) 1.7526 meter >>> print(height) 5.75 foot >>> height.ito_base_units() >>> print(height) 1.7526 meter In some cases it is useful to define physical quantities objects using the class constructor: .. doctest:: >>> Q_ = ureg.Quantity >>> Q_(1.78, ureg.meter) == 1.78 * ureg.meter True (I tend to abbreviate Quantity as Q_) The built-in parser recognizes prefixed and pluralized units even though they are not in the definition list: .. doctest:: >>> distance = 42 * ureg.kilometers >>> print(distance) 42 kilometer >>> print(distance.to(ureg.meter)) 42000.0 meter If you try to use a unit which is not in the registry: .. doctest:: >>> speed = 23 * ureg.snail_speed Traceback (most recent call last): ... pint.errors.UndefinedUnitError: 'snail_speed' is not defined in the unit registry You can add your own units to the registry or build your own list. More info on that :ref:defining String parsing -------------- Pint can also handle units provided as strings: .. doctest:: >>> 2.54 * ureg.parse_expression('centimeter') or using the registry as a callable for a short form: .. doctest:: >>> 2.54 * ureg('centimeter') or using the Quantity constructor: .. doctest:: >>> Q_(2.54, 'centimeter') Numbers are also parsed, so you can use an expression: .. doctest:: >>> ureg('2.54 * centimeter') or: .. doctest:: >>> Q_('2.54 * centimeter') This enables you to build a simple unit converter in 3 lines: .. doctest:: >>> user_input = '2.54 * centimeter to inch' >>> src, dst = user_input.split(' to ') >>> Q_(src).to(dst) .. note:: Since version 0.7, Pint **does not** uses eval_ under the hood. This change removes the serious security problems_ that the system is exposed when parsing information from untrusted sources. .. _sec-string-formatting: String formatting ----------------- Pint's physical quantities can be easily printed: .. doctest:: >>> accel = 1.3 * ureg['meter/second**2'] >>> # The standard string formatting code >>> print('The str is {!s}'.format(accel)) The str is 1.3 meter / second ** 2 >>> # The standard representation formatting code >>> print('The repr is {!r}'.format(accel)) The repr is >>> # Accessing useful attributes >>> print('The magnitude is {0.magnitude} with units {0.units}'.format(accel)) The magnitude is 1.3 with units meter / second ** 2 .. note:: In Python 2.6, unnumbered placeholders are invalid. Therefore you need to write {0} instead of {}, {0!s} instead of {!s} in string formatting operations. But Pint also extends the standard formatting capabilities for unicode and LaTeX representations: .. doctest:: >>> accel = 1.3 * ureg['meter/second**2'] >>> # Pretty print >>> 'The pretty representation is {:P}'.format(accel) 'The pretty representation is 1.3 meter/second²' >>> # Latex print >>> 'The latex representation is {:L}'.format(accel) 'The latex representation is 1.3 \\frac{meter}{second^{2}}' >>> # HTML print >>> 'The HTML representation is {:H}'.format(accel) 'The HTML representation is 1.3 meter/second2' .. note:: In Python 2, run from __future__ import unicode_literals or prefix pretty formatted strings with u to prevent UnicodeEncodeError. If you want to use abbreviated unit names, prefix the specification with ~: .. doctest:: >>> 'The str is {:~}'.format(accel) 'The str is 1.3 m / s ** 2' >>> 'The pretty representation is {:~P}'.format(accel) 'The pretty representation is 1.3 m/s²' The same is true for latex (L) and HTML (H) specs. Pint also supports the LaTeX siunitx package: .. doctest:: >>> accel = 1.3 * ureg['meter/second**2'] >>> # siunitx Latex print >>> print('The siunitx representation is {:Lx}'.format(accel)) The siunitx representation is \SI[]{1.3}{\meter\per\second\squared} Finally, you can specify a default format specification: >>> 'The acceleration is {}'.format(accel) 'The acceleration is 1.3 meter / second ** 2' >>> ureg.default_format = 'P' >>> 'The acceleration is {}'.format(accel) 'The acceleration is 1.3 meter/second²' Using Pint in your projects --------------------------- If you use Pint in multiple modules within your Python package, you normally want to avoid creating multiple instances of the unit registry. The best way to do this is by instantiating the registry in a single place. For example, you can add the following code to your package __init__.py:: from pint import UnitRegistry ureg = UnitRegistry() Q_ = ureg.Quantity Then in yourmodule.py the code would be:: from . import ureg, Q_ length = 10 * ureg.meter my_speed = Q_(20, 'm/s') If you are pickling and unplicking Quantities within your project, you should also define the registry as the application registry:: from pint import UnitRegistry, set_application_registry ureg = UnitRegistry() set_application_registry(ureg) .. warning:: There are no global units in Pint. All units belong to a registry and you can have multiple registries instantiated at the same time. However, you are not supposed to operate between quantities that belong to different registries. Never do things like this:: >>> q1 = UnitRegistry().meter >>> q2 = UnitRegistry().meter >>> # q1 and q2 belong to different registries! >>> id(q1._REGISTRY) == id(q2._REGISTRY) # False False .. _eval: http://docs.python.org/3/library/functions.html#eval .. _serious security problems: http://nedbatchelder.com/blog/201206/eval_really_is_dangerous.html