In a definition file¶
To define units in a persistent way you need to create a unit definition file. Such files are simple text files in which the units are defined as function of other units. For example this is how the minute and the hour are defined in default_en.txt:
hour = 60 * minute = h = hr minute = 60 * second = min
It is quite straightforward, isn’t it? We are saying that minute is 60 seconds and is also known as min.
The first word is always the canonical name.
Next comes the definition (based on other units).
Next, optionally, there is the unit symbol.
Finally, again optionally, a list of aliases, separated by equal signs. If one wants to specify aliases but not a symbol, the symbol should be conventionally set to
millennium = 1e3 * year = _ = millennia
The order in which units are defined does not matter, Pint will resolve the dependencies to define them in the right order. What is important is that if you transverse all definitions, a reference unit is reached. A reference unit is not defined as a function of another units but of a dimension. For the time in default_en.txt, this is the second:
second = [time] = s = sec
By defining second as equal to a string time in square brackets we indicate that:
time is a physical dimension.
second is a reference unit.
The ability to define basic physical dimensions as well as reference units allows to construct arbitrary units systems.
Pint is shipped with a default definition file named default_en.txt where en stands for English. You can add your own definitions to the end of this file but you will have to be careful to merge when you update Pint. An easier way is to create a new file (e.g. mydef.txt) with your definitions:
dog_year = 52 * day = dy
and then in Python, you can load it as:
>>> from pint import UnitRegistry >>> # First we create the registry. >>> ureg = UnitRegistry() >>> # Then we append the new definitions >>> ureg.load_definitions('/your/path/to/my_def.txt')
If you make a translation of the default units or define a completely new set, you don’t want to append the translated definitions so you just give the filename to the constructor:
>>> from pint import UnitRegistry >>> ureg = UnitRegistry('/your/path/to/default_es.txt')
In the definition file, prefixes are identified by a trailing dash:
yocto- = 10.0**-24 = y-
It is important to note that prefixed defined in this way can be used with any unit, including non-metric ones (e.g. kiloinch is valid for Pint). This simplifies definitions files enormously without introducing major problems. Pint, like Python, believes that we are all consenting adults.
Derived dimensions are defined as follows:
[density] = [mass] / [volume]
Note that primary dimensions don’t need to be declared; they can be defined for the first time as part of a unit definition.
Finally, one may add aliases to an already existing unit definition:
@alias meter = metro = metr
This is particularly useful when one wants to enrich definitions from defaults_en.txt with new aliases from a custom file. It can also be used for translations (like in the example above) as long as one is happy to have the localized units automatically converted to English when they are parsed.
You can easily add units, dimensions, or aliases to the registry programmatically. Let’s add a dog_year (sometimes written as dy) equivalent to 52 (human) days:
>>> from pint import UnitRegistry >>> # We first instantiate the registry. >>> # If we do not provide any parameter, the default unit definitions are used. >>> ureg = UnitRegistry() >>> Q_ = ureg.Quantity # Here we add the unit >>> ureg.define('dog_year = 52 * day = dy') # We create a quantity based on that unit and we convert to years. >>> lassie_lifespan = Q_(10, 'year') >>> print(lassie_lifespan.to('dog_years')) 70.240384... dog_year
Note that we have used the name dog_years even though we have not defined the
plural form as an alias. Pint takes care of that, so you don’t have to.
Plural forms that aren’t simply built by adding a ‘s’ suffix to the singular form
should be explicitly stated as aliases (see for example
You can also add prefixes programmatically:
>>> ureg.define('myprefix- = 30 = my-')
where the number indicates the multiplication factor.
Same for aliases and derived dimensions:
>>> ureg.define('@alias meter = metro = metr') >>> ureg.define('[hypervolume] = [length] ** 4')
Units, prefixes, aliases and dimensions added programmatically are forgotten when the program ends.
Units with constants¶
Some units, such as
L/100km, contain constants. These can be defined with a
>>> ureg.define('_100km = 100 * kilometer') >>> ureg.define('mpg = 1 * mile / gallon') >>> fuel_ec_europe = 5 * ureg.L / ureg._100km >>> fuel_ec_us = (1 / fuel_ec_europe).to(ureg.mpg)
Checking if a unit is already defined¶
in keyword works as expected with unit registries. Check if
a unit has been defined with the following:
>>> 'MHz' in ureg True >>> 'gigatrees' in ureg False